# Statistics

To enter the Statistics application, highlight the app using the directional keys. Press the ok key to enter the application. This application allows you to study single variable data sets and view statistical values relevant to your set: mean, standard deviation, minimum or maximum and more. You may also view graphical representations of your data with boxplots, histograms, cumulative relative frequncy graphs and normal probablity plots.

## Getting started

### Entering data into the table

You must first enter your data into the table. You may add up to 3 data tables.

• In the first column (Value V1), enter the values of your data set.
• In the second column (Frequency N1), enter the frequencies associated with each value in your data set, i.e. the number of occurrences of each value.

When you begin entering data in the Value VI column, the Frequency N1 column is automatically filled with the value $1$, indicating the value appears only once in the set. If the value appears more than once in your data set, you can enter the same value multiple times or change the frequency in the second column.

For example, consider the following data set: $1$, $1$, $1$, $2$, $3$, $3$, $4$, $5$, $5$.
To enter this statistical data in the table:

Value V1 Frequency N1
$1$ $3$
$2$ $1$
$3$ $2$
$4$ $1$
$5$ $2$

### Viewing graphical representations of your data

After entering your data in the Data tab, you may view a graphical representation of your data. To view a graph:

1. Use the directional keys to highlight the Graph tab at the top of the screen.
2. Confirm by pressing the ok key.
3. Select the graph type of interest.

You can view your data using the following graphical representations:

• Histogram
• Boxplot
• Cumulative Relative Frequency Graph
• Normal Probability Plot

### Displaying statistics

After entering your data in the Data tab, you can display the statistics: mean, standard deviation, median, etc. To view the statistics:

1. Select the Stats tab at the top of the screen.
2. Confirm by pressing ok.

You can now view all statistics available for your data set.

## Using the Data tab

### Deleting a row from a data table

To delete a row from a data table:

1. Highlight a single cell in the row that you wish to delete.
2. Press the del key. The row has been deleted.

To change a value, highlight the desired cell and enter a new value with the numerical keys.

### Clearing a column from a data table

You may clear an entire column from any data table. Clearing the Value V1 column also clears the Frequency N1 column. Clearing the Frequency N1 column will fill each cell in the column with the value $1$. To clear an entire column from a data table:

1. Highlight the name of the column you want to clear. For example, highlight Value V1 to clear the first column of the first data table.
2. Confirm by pressing the ok key. The column options menu will open.
3. Highlight Clear table V1/N1.
4. Confirm with the ok key. The column has been cleared.

You can also clear a column by pressing the del key when a column name is highlighted.

### Generating a list with a formula

You may fill a column of a data table using a formula. To fill a column with a formula:

1. Highlight the name of the column you wish to fill. For example, highlight Value V2.
2. Confirm by pressing the ok key.
3. The column options menu opens. Highlight Fill with a formula.
4. Confirm with the ok key.
5. Select a list function from the templates or use the Empty template to create your own.
6. You can also enter a formula using the name of another column. For example, if you would like column Value V2 to be filled with the values of V1 divided by 2, use the Empty template and write V1/2 in the editing field at the bottom of the screen.
7. Confirm with the ok key.

You can re-evaluate or edit the formula by returning to the Fill with formula option.

### Sorting a list by increasing values

You may sort a list in a data table by increasing values. This classification affects the column associated with the list (Value ​​or Frequency).

1. Highlight the name of the column you would like to sort.
2. Confirm with the ok key.
3. The column options menu opens. Highlight Sort.
4. Confirm with the ok key. The items of your list have been sorted.

### Displaying cumulative frequencies

You may view a column of cumulative frequencies for your data set. To view cumulative frequencies:

1. Highlight the name of the column for which you would like to see the cumulative frequencies.
2. Confirm with the ok key.
3. The column options menu opens. Highlight Cumulative frequencies.
4. Press the ok key to toggle on the option.
5. Press the back key to return to the Data tab and view the column of cumulative frequencies.

### Hiding a data set

You may hide a data set so that it does not appear in the graphs or summary statistics. To hide a data set:

1. Highlight the name of the column you would like to hide.
2. Confirm with the ok key.
3. The column options menu opens. Highlight Show in Graphs and Stats.
4. Press the ok key to toggle off the option.

When a data set is hidden, the table and its values will be gray.

To show a hidden data set, repeat the steps above to toggle back on the option.

## Using the Graph tab

### Selecting a graphical representation

You can view your data with a boxplot, histogram, cumulative relative frequncy graph or normal probability plot. To select a graphical representation:

1. Use the directional keys to highlight the Graph tab at the top of the screen.
2. Confirm by pressing the ok key.
3. Select the graph type of interest.

Once a graph is selected, you can return to the graph selection menu by selecting the Type menu.

### Viewing data with histogram

When viewing data with a histogram, you will see the interval, frequency and relative frequency in the banner at the bottom of the screen for each bin.

To navigate between the bins in the histogram, use the leftright keys.

To navigate between data sets, use the updown keys.

#### Setting the histogram parameters

You may change the width and starting value of the histogram bins. To do this:

1. Highlight the Settings menu and press the ok key.
2. The histogram settings menu opens. Enter the values for the Bin width and X start.
3. Highlight Confirm and press the ok key.

### Viewing data with a boxplot

When viewing data with a boxplot, the banner at the bottom of the screen will display a value of the 5-number summary. These values include:

• Minimum
• First quartile
• Median
• Third quartile
• Maximum

To navigate between statistics, use the leftright keys.

To navigate between data sets, use the updown keys.

#### Displaying outliers

By default, outliers will automatically be displayed as individual points on the boxplot. To disable outliers:

1. Highlight the Settings menu and press the ok key.
2. The boxplot settings menu opens. Highlight Display outliers.
3. Press the ok key to toggle off the option.

### Viewing data with a cumulative relative frequency graph

When viewing data with a cummulative relative frequency graph, the banner at the bottom of the screen will display a value and its cumulative relative frequency.

To navigate through values, use the leftright keys.

To navigate between data sets, use the updown keys.

When viewing the cumulative frequency plot, use the numerical keys to input a value and jump to the point on the graph.

### Viewing data with a normal probability plot

When viewing data with a normal probability plot, the banner at the bottom of the screen will display a value and its expected z-score.

To navigate through values, use the leftright keys.

To navigate between data sets, use the updown keys.

## Using the Stats tab

The Stats tab displays the statistics calculated using the data entered in the Data tab. The full name of the descriptive statistic is listed along with a symbol:

• Number of data points: n
• Minimum: Min
• First quartile: Q1
• Median: Med
• Third quartile: Q3
• Maximum: Max
• Range: R
• Interquartile range: IQR
• Mean: µ
• Standard deviation: σ
• Variance: σ2
• Sample mean:
• Sample standard deviation: s
• Sample variance: s2
• Sum of values: Σx
• Mode: Mod
• Mode frequency: Modf